In 1803 the USA President Jefferson initiated an expedition that would eventually lead to the settlement and exploitation of the rest continent which lay beyond the settled east. This vast area was made up of land recently known as the Louisiana Purchase and the Spanish territories of the south west. An area largely unexplored and unchartered. A group of army volunteers under the leadership of Captain Meriwether Lewis and 2nd Lieutenant William Clark assembled at St Louis on the Mississippi in the autumn of 1803. Their objectives were to explore, to map and find a suitable route to the Pacific coast and establish a presence there before other European powers. Secondly they were to accumulate scientific and economic knowledge of the territory and study the wildlife, the geography and topography and make trade links with the Native Americans. The expedition set off in the spring of 1804 and followed the Missouri and then the Columbia rivers through to what is now Oregon. The expedition took two years and would gradually lead to the opening up of the West for settlement and development. This story was recounted to our members by Susan Clark .[ No relation to William Clark]. Using a series of slides Susan explained how she and her husband and their friends, coincidently called Lewis, planned to retrace the route taken by the explorers at the anniversary of the expedition in 2004. They took several weeks to complete the trip but retained many happy memories and recalled how they became minor celebrities once the many local people they met found out about their namesake heroes from England. The next meeting is October 3rd when Norma Thorpe from Nostell Priory will tell us about the Winn family ‘From Merchants to Mansions.’ Enquiries to Ron Pullan 01924 373310 email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Deceased Online On Saturday August 1st Jamie Burges-Lumsden , the founding Director for www.deceasedonline.com, gave a talk that family historians would find very useful. He explained that his website enabled researchers to gain access to: computerised crematoria and burial records, scanned burial registers , photos of graves, memorials and maps of cemeteries. Jamie only started this work in 2008 and is obviously ongoing but already there are millions of records available. He advised that to start with a researcher should put in a name and a date and maybe an area of the UK or Ireland a deceased may have been buried. That part is free but a charge is made for a further search for a photo, burial record or memorial inscription. This can be done on an individual basis but for further research an annual subscription is available. There is data protection for more recent records which can vary depending on the authority providing the information. Other useful information that can be gleaned, that might not necessarily be immediately apparent, is the manner of some deaths might be inscribed on a headstone eg ‘drowned’ or ‘killed’ or records might show that there are more persons buried in a plot other than the one being researched. Records can also show where deceased ashes might have been scattered. Jamie’s talk was greatly enjoyed by those in attendance and the interest shown was evident by the many questions asked at the end of the talk The next talk is September 5th with Susan Clark on ‘ Lewis & Clark: Explorers of 19th century USA.’ Enquiries to Ron Pullan 01924 373310.
AGM and ' A Story of Frances.'
On Saturday 4 July the Society held its Annual General Meeting. The Vice President, Deborah Scriven, who read out a prepared message from the President, Joan P Smith, who was unable to attend. In her message Joan congratulated the Society on its 18th Birthday. The first meeting took place in September 1997 at St Michael’s Hall, Westgate.It was held on the same day as the funeral for Diana, Princess of Wales. A sad day but it was decided to proceed with the meeting which was well attended. The formal part of the AGM then took place. This included reports from the Chairman Chris Welch, the Treasurer David Tolfrey, the Editor Elsie Walton. The election of officers and committee members followed. There then followed a break in which refreshments were made available from a specially made cake for the occasion and soft drinks. Our special guest, Anne Batchelor, then recounted an intriguing story about her background which had the title,’ My name is Frances.’ This involved a great deal of research and detective work by Anne. It started in 1920 when a request was made for two children to be taken into care as the mother had died and the father felt unable to give them the care they needed. These were the grandparents of Anne Batchelor. Her mother, who was the 4 year old Frances was taken in care in York. While the boy, William, who was 2 years old was eventually sent to London. The care home that Frances was sent to in York was generally a happy period. Most records had disappeared but there was sufficient evidence left for Anne to arrive at this conclusion. Her father went to visit her as often as he could. The boy William spent time in a care home in London then Ipswich and then eventually in The Bede Home for Boys in Wakefield. He was earmarked to be sent to Canada but was deemed too puny for farm work. At the age of sixteen he decided to join the army in the Royal Fusiliers, who was killed in Italy in 1944. After attending an Armistice Day ceremony in London through the British Legion Anne met someone who knew her uncle William. Anne also was able to track down someone who at the same Home as her mother France in York which resulted in more useful information. Anne’s talk was a salutary one for all family historians in which she gave a number of useful pointers that researchers could also use. The next meeting is 1st August when J. B-Lumsden will brief us about ‘ Deceased online.’ Enquiries to Ron Pullan 01924 373310.
Communities of Resistance in the Great War 1914-18
On Saturday 6th June Cyril Pearce, our guest speaker, returned to bring his audience up to date with his research on perspectives of conscientious objectors from the Great War. He reminded us first of the part played by leading labour movement people from Huddersfield such as Wilfred Whitelely and Arthur Gardiner. Women were also involved such as Florence Shaw whose brother was the first CO. Because Cyril is from Huddersfield and had started his research looking at COs from that town, he decided to try and find out if there were other ‘ Huddersfields.’ To date he has built up a data base that contains well over 17000 names from around England. First he demonstrated with a map of Hertfordshire in which the largest town Watford had a CO index the same as Hitchin Rural District. By using a CO index it was demonstrated that a town in Hitchin, Letchworth, with a much smaller population, looked to have such a high CO index was because there was a greater number of radicals and alternative life style people who had been drawn to live in the new garden town of Letchworth and many of them were COs. Another example was shown from Lancashire. As expected the largest number of COs pro rata were in the largest cities such as Manchester and Liverpool. However using the CO index, Nelson, a much smaller place, came out strong on the CO index. In West Yorkshire Wakefield does not stand out particularly with regard to the number of COs whereas East Ardsley, not far away did. Cyril has yet to find out why this was so. He suspects that Wakefield had a large mining work force and such occupations were , along with ship building and steel industries, regarded by the War Office as essential and therefore were not called up for conscription by 1916. The fate of COs ranged from prison, to working on farms or in forestry to recruitment by the army at the Front in RAMC where stretcher bearers etc could be employed. Often religious members such as the Quakers fell into this latter category. However many COs were so badly treated that they succumbed and were forced to fight at the Front. This was a fascinating glimpse into the lives of war resistors and we were reminded that Cyril’s work is still far from complete. The next meeting 4th July is the AGM followed by an old favourite, Anne Batchelor, whose topic ‘ My name is Francis’ deals with a moving family story of Waifs and Boys’ Homes.’
Garderobes, Grime and Leeches
Garderobes, Grime and Leeches. The monthly meeting May 2nd had Maureen Taylor, dressed in mid-16th century clothes, ready to enlighten us on the health, hygiene and toilet habits of that period. We were reminded that our towns and cities were foul smelling places in which streets were little more than open sewers and disease was endemic. Such had been the case for hundreds of years and with only minor changes for the next two or three centuries. For the relatively well off the average life span was about forty seven years while the working poor it might be twenty seven years. Children played in streets that were infested with rats scavenging in the effluent, public toilets were non-existent except those on London bridge where excrement dropped straight into the river. Communal toilets, where they had survived from Roman times, might be used otherwise the wealthy used garderobes ie where a little room with a seat meant human waste ran through a hole in the wall into a moat, river or pit. Piss or chamber pots would be used and a cloth on a stick would be used to clean themselves. It was said that while groping for such you hoped ‘you didn’t get hold of the wrong end of the stick.’ The common poor would resort to bunches of grass, leaves or moss! Personal hygiene by today’s standards would be found wanting. It is said that Queen Elizabeth I only bathed once a month while Louis XIV of France bathed three times a year, while the common man maybe hardly at all! Clothes were rarely changed and by a working man hardly ever. Everyone had fleas as clothes were rarely washed and bathing too often was thought dangerous because it could weaken you or lead to colds or even worse ailments. Drinking the stuff was out of the question. Quenching your thirst meant drinking ‘small’ ale or wine. Diet was limited for the working classes consisting of root crops, little meat and bread made from rye or barley. The rich had a greater variety of meats and bread was made from refined flour. Sugar was a particular favourite of the wealthy which resulted in much tooth decay. Diseases were many ranging from small pox to scurvy. Many proved fatal. To deal with them the sick could resort to physicians , apothecaries, barber-surgeons, quacks but mostly to housewives. The latter would often have a good general knowledge of herbs that often proved successful and indeed some are still used today. Maureen also described the part played by the use of leeches, ‘cupping’ and even astrology in the quest to help the sick while a description of the many quack remedies made many of us wince. Her talk made us aware of how lucky we are to live in the twenty first century and in an age when we have recourse to the NHS. Next month June 2nd we welcome Cyril Peace who will continue his talk on ‘ Communities of Resistance.’ Enquiries to Ron Pullan 01924 373310 or email@example.com